Primary Sources:

“Homicide In Chicago 1870-1930.” Homicide in Chicago 1870-1930 :: Homicide In Chicago 1870-1930. Accessed November 08, 2017.

“LEOPOLD AND LOEB IN THE ARCHIVES.” Leopold and Loeb Artifacts, University Archives, Northwestern University Library. Accessed November 08, 2017.

Special to The New,York Times. (1924, Sep 11). FRANKS SLAYERS GET LIFE IMPRISONMENT; YOUTH AVERTS NOOSE. New York Times (1923-Current File) Retrieved from

Secondary Sources:

Boehnert, Caryl E. “Characteristics of Successful and Unsuccessful Insanity Pleas.” Law and Human Behavior 13, no. 1 (1989): 31-39.

“Brief Chronology of Events.” Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology 15, no. 3 (1924): 348-49. doi:10.2307/1134804.

Hannon, Michael. “Leopold and Loeb Case (1924).” University of Minnesota Law Library. Accessed September 15, 2017.

Prior, Pauline M. “Murder and Madness: Gender and the Insanity Defense in Nineteenth-century Ireland.” New hibernia review = Iris eireannach nua. 2005. Accessed December 12, 2017.